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Support => Netbooks => Topic started by: rc_mandar on July 09, 2014, 04:39:02 pm

Title: Multiple distro setup
Post by: rc_mandar on July 09, 2014, 04:39:02 pm
Hey guys,

I have been Windows user for a long time and finally i had courage to step on the right side. I have been using Ubuntu for 4 months now and i want more.

I have got myself a second laptop Thinkpad X121e in order to mess things around on a proper playground instead of destroying my work setup.

I have browsed a lot and i think i will install 3 distros to deepen my knowledge.

1) Debian kde --> http://ftp.halifax.rwth-aachen.de/de...ybrid/?C=S;O=A

2) Korora (also kde)

3) I m not sure :-(


please comment. Also i m not sure if the link i mentioned for debian installation is right or not.


Please reply.
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: Mark Greaves (PCNetSpec) on July 09, 2014, 06:47:59 pm
Hi rc_mandar, and welcome to the forum :)

Not 100% sure what you're asking here, but.....

a) AFAIK a standard install of Debian will offer you different desktop environment as part of the install process.
https://wiki.debian.org/KDE (https://wiki.debian.org/KDE)
or there are Debian/KDE Live images available
http://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/i386/iso-hybrid/ (http://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/i386/iso-hybrid/)
and for 64bit
http://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/amd64/iso-hybrid/ (http://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/amd64/iso-hybrid/)

b) Never heard of it, but as it's KDE I'll never really have looked ;)

c) Peppermint 5 .. but then I'm biased :)

--
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: chemicalfan on July 10, 2014, 04:41:56 pm
Are you familiar with virtual machines and using Virtualbox? You could save yourself a whole load of work if you're still "distro hopping"
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: rc_mandar on July 18, 2014, 03:13:48 pm
Hello,

Since this post i was doing research to install debian fluxbox lightweight distro on my x121e Thinkpad. I did it and now i have just one problem.  See the second snap shot i can't access my two 60gb and 193 gb partitions.

Please reply :)
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: Mark Greaves (PCNetSpec) on July 18, 2014, 03:32:00 pm
You're going to need to either -

a) automagically mount the partitions at bootup by adding the correct stanza(s) to /etc/fstab

or

b) run your file manager "as root" when you want to access them.
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: rc_mandar on July 18, 2014, 04:41:19 pm
Yes a) part seems right.


Please tell me how. ANy link that i can read?

Please elaborate.
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: Mark Greaves (PCNetSpec) on July 18, 2014, 04:52:02 pm
from the distro that can't mount the partitions, post the output from:
Code: [Select]
sudo fdisk -l
and
Code: [Select]
mount
and the contents of
Code: [Select]
gedit /etc/fstab
if gedit isn't your text editor, replace gedit with the name of your text editor in the last command.



BTW, on your desktop wallpaper, it looks like Batman is wearing a low cut dress and showing his bust/cleavage :)
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: rc_mandar on July 20, 2014, 04:13:42 pm
so you mean in the following file:

Code: [Select]
# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# Use 'blkid' to print the universally unique identifier for a
# device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name devices
# that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
#
# <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
# / was on /dev/sdb3 during installation
UUID=83a1615f-2063-4b0b-86e8-bd7262e3516b /               ext4    errors=remount-ro 0       1
# /boot was on /dev/sdb1 during installation
#UUID=01ff646f-7e68-4b6b-b9be-e6b26f496504 /boot           ext2    defaults        0       2
# swap was on /dev/sdb2 during installation
UUID=6a3d69b0-064a-4bdd-ad54-6ebfd916a68e none            swap    sw              0       0
/dev/sda1       /media/usb0     auto    rw,user,noauto  0       0
UUID=01ff646f-7e68-4b6b-b9be-e6b26f496504       /boot   ext2    defaults        0       2


i should just add
/dev/sda5     /media         auto         rw,user       
/dev/sda6     /media         auto         rw,user       

is it? I am confused about the later part after /media

please help
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: SeZo on July 20, 2014, 04:54:50 pm
It would be advantageous if you could also post the results of the two commands Mark asked for:
(That is a lower case L)
Code: [Select]
sudo fdisk -l

and
Code: [Select]
mount
Could you also post the whole content of the file /etc/fstab
Code: [Select]
cat /etc/fstab
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: Mark Greaves (PCNetSpec) on July 20, 2014, 05:42:48 pm
First see SeZo's response above.
Quote
i should just add
/dev/sda5     /media         auto         rw,user       
/dev/sda6     /media         auto         rw,user       

is it? I am confused about the later part after /media

Close but no cigar ;)

Post the output from the earlier commands we assked fo and we'll assist.
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: rc_mandar on July 20, 2014, 09:57:13 pm
output 1:
Code: [Select]
sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 320.1 GB, 320072933376 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 38913 cylinders, total 625142448 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0000f32c

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1            2048     1026047      512000   83  Linux
/dev/sda2         1026048     9414655     4194304   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3   *     9414656    93300735    41943040   83  Linux
/dev/sda4        93302782   625141759   265919489    5  Extended
Partition 4 does not start on physical sector boundary.
/dev/sda5        93302784   219131903    62914560   83  Linux
/dev/sda6       219133952   625141759   203003904    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT


output 2: mount
Code: [Select]
mad@Xdeb:~$ mount
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
proc on /proc type proc (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
udev on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,relatime,size=10240k,nr_inodes=713123,mode=755)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,gid=5,mode=620,ptmxmode=000)
tmpfs on /run type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,size=571744k,mode=755)
/dev/disk/by-uuid/83a1615f-2063-4b0b-86e8-bd7262e3516b on / type ext4 (rw,relatime,errors=remount-ro,user_xattr,barrier=1,data=ordered)
tmpfs on /run/lock type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,size=5120k)
tmpfs on /run/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,size=1982340k)
/dev/sda1 on /boot type ext2 (rw,relatime,errors=continue,user_xattr,acl)
rpc_pipefs on /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs type rpc_pipefs (rw,relatime)
binfmt_misc on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type binfmt_misc (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)

output 3:
Code: [Select]
sudo nano /etc/fstab

# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# Use 'blkid' to print the universally unique identifier for a
# device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name devices
# that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
#
# <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
# / was on /dev/sdb3 during installation
UUID=83a1615f-2063-4b0b-86e8-bd7262e3516b /               ext4    errors=remount-ro 0       1
# /boot was on /dev/sdb1 during installation
#UUID=01ff646f-7e68-4b6b-b9be-e6b26f496504 /boot           ext2    defaults        0       2
# swap was on /dev/sdb2 during installation
UUID=6a3d69b0-064a-4bdd-ad54-6ebfd916a68e none            swap    sw              0       0
/dev/sda1       /media/usb0     auto    rw,user,noauto  0       0
UUID=01ff646f-7e68-4b6b-b9be-e6b26f496504       /boot   ext2    defaults        0       2
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: Mark Greaves (PCNetSpec) on July 20, 2014, 11:32:00 pm
OK, we're going to create 2 mountpoints in /mnt for sda5 and sda6 then mount them through fstab.. what would you like to call the mountpoints ?

Something like
sda5 = <whatever distro is on it>
sda6 = windows

Can you also post the output from:
Code: [Select]
sudo blkid
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: rc_mandar on July 21, 2014, 03:53:00 pm
Code: [Select]
mad@Xdeb:~$ sudo blkid
[sudo] password for mad:
/dev/sda1: LABEL="btldr" UUID="01ff646f-7e68-4b6b-b9be-e6b26f496504" TYPE="ext2"
/dev/sda2: UUID="6a3d69b0-064a-4bdd-ad54-6ebfd916a68e" TYPE="swap"
/dev/sda3: UUID="83a1615f-2063-4b0b-86e8-bd7262e3516b" TYPE="ext4"
/dev/sda5: LABEL="linux2" UUID="760b8214-cee3-4f7e-a7bb-0743ff806da9" TYPE="ext4"
/dev/sda6: LABEL="data" UUID="1C4167532131C952" TYPE="ntfs"


thank you so much Mark. I must say your help ( you had replied to my threads before as well) brought me closer to linux as an OS user. It gave me courage to stop using Windows.
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: Mark Greaves (PCNetSpec) on July 21, 2014, 07:47:53 pm
OK, first make sure ntfs-3g is installed
Code: [Select]
sudo apt-get install ntfs-3g

then create the mountpoints .. run:
Code: [Select]
sudo mkdir -v /mnt/linux2
then
Code: [Select]
sudo mkdir -v /mnt/data
then let's backup fstab before editing
Code: [Select]
sudo cp -v /etc/fstab /etc/fstab.bak
now open fstab for editing:
Code: [Select]
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
and add these 4 lines at the end
Code: [Select]
## Auto-mounts added by mad ##
UUID=760b8214-cee3-4f7e-a7bb-0743ff806da9 /mnt/linux2    ext4    defaults    0    0
UUID=1C4167532131C952 /mnt/data    ntfs-3g    defaults,windows_name    0    0
## End auto-mounts added by mad ##
SAVE the file and exit gedit.

Back in the terminal,see if there are any errors if you run:
Code: [Select]
sudo mount -a

then see if your files are visible if you go to
/mnt/linux2
and
/mnt/data

If everything went well .. reboot to test the partitions are auto mounted



Obviously if gedit isn't your text editor, you'll have to adjust the commands to relace "gedit" with your text editor.
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: rc_mandar on July 22, 2014, 07:23:48 am
Well done! THanks for your support! I am happy tht i can now access my other partitions in deb.

However, in THunar the icons on left pane that were there previously 60gb and 193.6gb are disappeared.
May be now i have to take a closer look to THunar.  ???


Anyway, Mark please please can you tell me how can i modify grub to show my second linux distro in grub menu when my ATA HDD boots up?
any link? Tutorial?  ::)
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: Mark Greaves (PCNetSpec) on July 22, 2014, 09:55:11 am
I'll answer the GRUB thing when I have a little more time .. but in thunar, just bookmark the two mountpoints.
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: rc_mandar on July 22, 2014, 11:04:22 pm
But please please please do answer my question regarding grub...
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: Mark Greaves (PCNetSpec) on July 23, 2014, 12:23:56 am
Oops forgot....

OK, are you saying the GRUB menu never displays when you boot ? .. and it just boots directly into the FIRST distro (the one on sda1) ?

If that's the case, how are you currently booting the second distro ?
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: rc_mandar on July 23, 2014, 07:53:30 am
@Mark:

I haven't yet installed my second distro. This brings me to next question: yesterday i wanted to install finally my second distro of my x121e thinkpad. however i ran into this (see snap) i aborted just because i have invested many searches and apt-gets in flux debian install i didn't want to mess it up!

for further discussion:
Code: [Select]
mad@Xdeb:~$ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 320.1 GB, 320072933376 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 38913 cylinders, total 625142448 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0000f32c

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1            2048     1026047      512000   83  Linux
/dev/sda2         1026048     9414655     4194304   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3   *     9414656    93300735    41943040   83  Linux
/dev/sda4        93302782   625141759   265919489    5  Extended
Partition 4 does not start on physical sector boundary.
/dev/sda5        93304832   177190911    41943040   83  Linux
/dev/sda6       177192960   261079039    41943040   83  Linux
/dev/sda7       261081088   625141759   182030336    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT

i want to install Ubuntu 12.04 on /dev/sda5

please please reply!
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: Mark Greaves (PCNetSpec) on July 23, 2014, 03:19:02 pm
The GRUB menu is skipped automagically unless there are 2 (or more) OS's installed .. then iit will be displayed.



OK, now I'm confused .. did you use a separate /boot partition for your first distro ?

And tell the second one to use it as well ?
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: rc_mandar on July 23, 2014, 10:51:29 pm
Yes apparently i myself got confused while installing my first distro debian wheezy fluxbox.

I had googled a lot about how to install multiple distros and how to partition hdd to accommodate all the partitions needed.

I meant to do a bootloader which i can modify by modifying grub files so as to put my own boot options, background pictures and etc.

I am thinking to reinstall wheezy just cause thr fact that i have a 500mb /boot is annoying me.

Your suggestions Mark? Also i am waiting for your inputs regarding modifying grub.
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: Mark Greaves (PCNetSpec) on July 24, 2014, 12:12:07 am
Personalty unless I'd made major changes I'd probably reinstall and not bother with a separate /boot or /home .. but that's just me.

On a 500GB drive wanting 2 OS's, I'd just go with say
200GB primary partition EXT4 mounted as /
and a 4GB (or whatever is twice your RAM) primary partition mounted as swap
Then leave the rest unpartitioned

When you come to install Ubuntu it should just offer to install "Alongside" your first distro and create the extended partition and logical partitions automagically.
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: rc_mandar on July 27, 2014, 11:21:25 am
Yes, well I didn't want a /boot but rather a dedicated Grub partition so that my linux distros can come and go...

Now that I understand /boot isn't the bootloader. Anyway, I feel doing installation again and I will follow something as follows:
1) making partitions using gparted!
200mb GRUB Partition
6gb swap(Question 1: do i have to have a swap??? i have 6 gigs of RAM and i never Hibernate my Laptop. I let it sleep that to very occasionally)
40Gb ext4    for debian wheezy with fluxbox
40gb ext4 logical Ubuntu 12.04LTS (Question 2: also just like debian can i do this install non gui???)
40gb ext4 logical some linux may be a fancy one like gentoo (Question 3: will it be too much for a beginner like me?)
rest as a data drive ntfs format...

2) installation of GRUB using the live Gparted itself. if it has terminal available.(Question 4: How?)

3) make grub config file (Question 5 How?)

4) installation of Debian fluxbox(here in installation i will choose no to question that says should it install Grub coz i have already installed one manually)
5) installation of Ub 12.04 LTS
6) setting up Grub files for Debian and Ub 12.04 using ubuntu live usb in the grub partition (Question 6 How?)

that's it!

steps 2-6 are really vaguely understood by myself... i am sure i will make mistakes however since the x121e is the lap for learning for me i would just wipe the hdd using gparted live and start again :) i need patience and i hope my hdd won't break due to repetitive formatting.

please answer my questions which i specified in brackets and numbered them as well.
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: SeZo on July 27, 2014, 11:54:46 am
Hmm... I think you have read just a tad too much for your own good.
First of all, there is no need or use for a grub partition.
Second, grub cannot (should not) be istalled as a standalone application.
What you will have to   decide is which distro you want to designate as the KEEPER of grub, then install grub to the /dev/sda. from that.
When you install other distros then deny the grub installation or if it gives the choice then istall it to the same same partition they will reside on.
Once install is complete then boot to the grub KEEPER distro and run:
Code: [Select]
sudo update-grub

This will pick up all new installs, but would haveto repeat it after any subsequent installs too.

Swap is up to you, not compulsory but good practice.

Data drive, why ntfs?

I would advise against Gentoo. If you want to dip your toes into bleeding edge, then try Manjaro first (tamed Arch) and see how you are getting on without (or just a little) hand holding.
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: chemicalfan on July 28, 2014, 10:00:34 am
Virtualbox is a wonderful thing, you won't risk trashing your other installs with a complicated install like Gentoo (which is hard enough for an experienced user, on a blank HDD!)
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: Mark Greaves (PCNetSpec) on July 28, 2014, 11:50:21 am
Not mastered partitioning, GRUB, and mountpoints, and you're considering Gentoo .. sorry if this comes across as impolite and patronising, but "GOOD GOD" man Gentoo scares the sh*te outa me .. you're not ready for Gentoo  :o
(I'm going to shut up now before I soil myself)

--
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: rc_mandar on July 31, 2014, 01:04:34 am
ok this is making me mad....

all i wanted to do is follow these steps as per the video but while booted into a Live USB of 12.04: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WawYFfTtqPc


what i did is as before i did partitioning using gparted live:
Code: [Select]
ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 320.1 GB, 320072933376 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 38913 cylinders, total 625142448 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0000f32c

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048     1026047      512000   83  Linux
/dev/sda2         1026048    17803263     8388608   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3        17803264   101689343    41943040   83  Linux
/dev/sda4       101691390   625141759   261725185    5  Extended
Partition 4 does not start on physical sector boundary.
/dev/sda5       101691392   185577471    41943040   83  Linux
/dev/sda6       185579520   269465599    41943040   83  Linux
/dev/sda7       269467648   625141759   177837056    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT

Disk /dev/sdb: 4009 MB, 4009754624 bytes
126 heads, 22 sectors/track, 2825 cylinders, total 7831552 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xbafc4f15

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1   *        2048     7831551     3914752    b  W95 FAT32

and afterwards i installed Ubuntu 12.04 via the link http://de.releases.ubuntu.com/12.04.4/
amd64 alternative version. I selected no when asked install grub to MBR.

after complete installation i did boot from a LIVE USB of 12.04 and i simply wanted to run following:

Code: [Select]
ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ sudo grub-install --root-directory=/media/grub2 /dev/sda
Installation finished. No error reported.
ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ sudo chmod 777 -R /media/grub2
ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ sudo grub-mkconfig -o /media/grub2/boot/grub/grub.cfg
[u][b]/usr/sbin/grub-probe: error: cannot find a device for / (is /dev mounted?).
[/b][/u]


why do i have the error how can i solve this?
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: chemicalfan on July 31, 2014, 09:07:23 am
Do you have a seperate /boot partition?

I think your last command should be:
Code: [Select]
sudo grub-mkconfig -o /dev/sdaX/boot/grub/grub.cfg
sdaX = your /boot partition, or just your / partition if it's not seperate

However, you might have to mount the partitions before you can do it, and if it's a seperate boot partition, once you mount it, it'll just be:
Code: [Select]
sudo grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

The -o flag indicates the output destination - you don't want the live USB!
Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: rc_mandar on August 02, 2014, 10:54:56 am
hey guys,

thanks for your inputs!!! I understood what i was doing wrong and by the time i read new replies here to my thread, it was confirmed. I shouldn't have done grub things thro' a live usb.

Here's what i did.

I cleaned my mistakes by gparted.
I installed Ub 12.04 normaly.
after installation when i did boot from newly installed Ub i followed the video:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WawYFfTtqPc

and installed grub2 in my grub2 dedicated partition which is /dev/sda1 of 500mb

then as we know i have installed only precise pangolin so i don't have a second distro to test my grub2 dedicated partition setup.

so i had read this thread: http://linuxforums.org.uk/index.php?topic=10264.0 so i decided to go for Simplicity 14.07 final just for a change.

i made a change in my partition table:
Code: [Select]
madmandy@Thinkpad-x121e:~$ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 320.1 GB, 320072933376 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 38913 cylinders, total 625142448 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0000f32c

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048     1026047      512000   83  Linux
/dev/sda2         1026048    17803263     8388608   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3        17803264   101689343    41943040   83  Linux
/dev/sda4       101691390   625141759   261725185    5  Extended
Partition 4 does not start on physical sector boundary.
/dev/sda5       101691392   185577471    41943040   83  Linux
/dev/sda6       185579520   206551039    10485760   83  Linux
/dev/sda7       269467648   625141759   177837056    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda8       206553088   269465599    31456256   83  Linux

Partition table entries are not in disk order

and installed it on /dev/sda6 however, install procedure was not cool! shame on you simplicity! You do not make justice to your name as per install procedure. However, i can see why it is so. Being the os so light weight it may have many constraints on development, thus the complications!

Further, now i know on reboot i will not have grub menu now itself while i have a self setup grub which i need to update myself.
so i did boot in Ub 12.04 and followed grub-mkconfig part of the video again and there it was the unknown linux distribution in my grub menu. however, i had to change some timeout value to see the grub menu.

Now coming back to questions, i have two of them this time and i request you guys to play along and answer me in organised manner as i ask them in an organised manner.

Q1: while installing Simplicity it (i m not sure) detected my grub somehow and showed me a text file in which was written add following content to your menu.lst file in /boot/grub if you have grub already installed otherwise click in dialogue box to finish installation and run grub install seperately to install grub to your mbr......

What is menu.lst and why don't i have it?

Q2:see snap and what is that the dialogue box wants to tell me?

Title: Re: Multiple distro setup
Post by: Mark Greaves (PCNetSpec) on August 02, 2014, 02:52:27 pm
1) menu.lst is from GRUB legacy, and is no longer used in GRUB2
(replaced by /boot/grub/grub.cfg which is autogenerated by a bunch of scripts and configured through /etc/default/grub)

2) it's just telling you that Puppy is a "single user" system that runs with administrative privileges  all the time.
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