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Messages - Mad Penguin

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1
General Discussion / Re: Changes to the Forum pages
« on: June 19, 2021, 02:31:58 pm »
Just as a general comment - I tend to use the default font size supplied with the browser then use "CTRL+mouse wheel" to change the zoom level for specific sites if the size is off. There "can" be adverse formatting effects on "some" sites if you choose to change the default font size in the browser ...

2
General Discussion / Re: Suggestion for this forum view set up
« on: June 18, 2021, 01:51:51 am »
Ahh, Ok, I think I see what you mean. The template is set to a 'fixed' width of 1200px, with 1280 being a sort of minimum desktop standard for the last 10-15 years or so. However, that doesn't really allow for phones etc.

There's a limit to what I can do without re-writing Nolt's template or picking another one, however I've had a stab at changing from "fixed" to "maximum", so the entry box should now scale to the window size, or at least down to around 700px. If your Window / display is less than 700px wide then it's not really going to work with this template for all sorts of reasons. I've also upped the default "height", although note that you can always increase the height of the entry box by dragging the sizer handle at the bottom of the window.

Let me know if that helps.

Quote
which does not fit onto any screen!

Erm, well, it fits on "all" my screens and this is the first query I've seen in 10 years, so I'm not sure "all" is entirely accurate ..  ;)  .. if that doesn't fix it, can you could post a screenshot somewhere so I can see exactly what the problem is?

3
General Discussion / Re: Suggestion for this forum view set up
« on: June 17, 2021, 02:15:01 am »
Hi, I've tweaked some of various font sizes .. how does it look now?

4
Linux Support / Re: ip neigh and arp - incorrect MAC address
« on: June 06, 2021, 11:31:52 am »
No problem, this is great! .. not only does it mean you'll spot this immediately next time, it means you'll be able to help the next person with the same problem!   ;-)
I just feel grateful the days of BNC and Token Ring networks are behind us ... :)

5
Linux Support / Re: ip neigh and arp - incorrect MAC address
« on: June 05, 2021, 10:41:12 pm »
Hi Brian, network problems can be a can-of-worms at the best of times, second only to printing problems :)

So, MAC addresses are hard-coded into network cards / chips, so in theory every device on the planet will have a unique MAC address.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MAC_address

Based on your description I would be inclined to think you have two devices on the network using the same IP address. So every now and again the device will broadcast a s "hello, my ip is .. and my mac is .." .. so depending on who broadcast last, that's the MAC that will appear in your ARP cache. To see what you have locally (tweak the address prefix as appropriate for your network);
Code: [Select]
sudo nmap -sP -n 192.168.1.0/24
(without the sudo, you won't necessarily get the MAC addresses)
This should list your local devices (IP/MAC) but also the name of the company who issued the MAC address, on a small network this should help determine which device is the owner of the offending MAC address. My best rule-of-thumb for small networks is; always use DHCP from your router. Home routers these days will typically always issue the same IP to the same MAC unless told otherwise, so once your NAS has been issued with an DHCP address, you can sort of treat it as static in that it's unlikely to change. However, once you set something up with a manually allocated IP, every now and again there is the potential for conflict.

hth


6
Linux Support / Re: How to Back Deletes / nice
« on: May 26, 2021, 12:21:56 pm »
Yeah, specifically;
Code: [Select]
nice 19 <command>
Will effectively only execute the command using "spare" CPU cycles, i.e. it should have zero impact on other processes running on the same machine. Generally speaking, rsync will use a bit of CPU, especially if you add "-z", which may impact for example on your desktop (or game :) ) performance. Using "nice" just means you can run this from "cron" literally without noticing. (sort of "bwlimit" for the CPU)

7
Linux Support / Re: How to Back Deletes
« on: May 26, 2021, 12:18:02 pm »
Hi Brian,

I *think* -O means that if you do something in the target folder that amends the modification time for the folder, it won't necessarily overwrite the timestamp during the next backup. Bear in mind this script has been growing (from many sources) over a period of maybe 10 years ... at some point something somewhere suggested this and it appears to do no harm .. :)

In terms of "-z", I find that over a local network, -z slows things down, and over a wide area network (broadband) it speeds things up.  In this instance I'm running over a VPN connection which does implicit compression anyway, so doing it a second time has no effect other than adding to CPU usage .. :)



8
Linux Support / Re: How to Back Deletes
« on: May 22, 2021, 12:14:43 pm »
Hi Brian,

For what it's worth, you might like to take a look at the following script which I run daily over a bunch of hosts. It's something that's evolved over time but provides what seems to be a relatively good incremental backup approach using rsync. Specifically it maintains a folder called "current" which "should" be a mirror of your target, then a bunch of other (dated) folders which contain changes / files updates as of the backup on that date.(9 times out of 10 I want access to the backup because I've inadvertently deleted something I still want .. :) )

Code: [Select]
#!/bin/bash 
 
HOST="$1"
HERE="/vols/backup/servers/${HOST}"
BACK=`date "+%A_%d_%B_%Y_%H"`
EXCL=".excludes"
OPTS="--sparse --force --ignore-errors --delete-excluded --exclude-from=${HERE}/${EXCL}
      --bwlimit=4096 --delete --backup --backup-dir=${HERE}/${BACK} -rvlpgoDtO"
mkdir -p ${HERE}/current
touch ${HERE}/${EXCL}
nice -n19 rsync ${OPTS} [email protected]${HOST}:/ ${HERE}/current

In addition it ignores paths listed in the file ".excludes" when ".excludes" is stored in the root of the destination folder tree, for example;

Code: [Select]
/proc 
/sys
/tmp
/dev
/swapfile
/run
/root
/var/lib/lxcfs

Things you might want to tune would include HERE (destination path), 4096 (which is limiting the bandwidth usage) .. call with;

Code: [Select]
./backup_script (host)

This tries to backup the entire target, but is filtered based on paths in .excludes.
It's "as-is" and use at your own risk, but either way it might help re; ideas.

---- Amended ----
Just to clarify a little, the backup for "this" server produces a directory structure like this;
Code: [Select]
$ ls /vols/backup/servers/legacy/ 
current                Monday_17_May_2021_01    Sunday_16_May_2021_01    Tuesday_11_May_2021_01
Friday_14_May_2021_01  Saturday_15_May_2021_01  Thursday_13_May_2021_01  Tuesday_18_May_2021_01
Friday_21_May_2021_01  Saturday_22_May_2021_01  Thursday_20_May_2021_01  Wednesday_19_May_2021_01
So "current" contains my current backup, "Saturday_22_May_2021_01" contains all the files changed or deleted during the most recent backup, etc ... :)

9
News and Events / Reorganise
« on: May 08, 2021, 02:53:44 pm »
We're moving some of the Forums boards around a little .. bear with us ...

10
News and Events / Re: Raspberry Pi 400
« on: May 07, 2021, 10:46:46 am »
Just as a follow up, there's a more in-depth review here;
https://linux.uk/raspberry-pi-400-2/

11
General Discussion / Re: Ubuntu Prometheus issue
« on: May 07, 2021, 10:42:04 am »
Hi, as this is an application specific issue you might find more relevant help on the Prometheus support forums.

https://discuss.prometheus.io/

Generally, it looks like your installation of Prometheus hasn't worked, the system service is trying to start "/usr/local/bin/prometheus" and getting a "permission denied" error. This would indicate that the file you are trying to execute (/usr/local/bin/prometheus) isn't marked as an executable file. If the issue is as simple as the installer not setting the correct permissions, you could rectify this specific issue with;

Code: [Select]
sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/prometheus
However I would recommend you investigate "why" the file has apparently been set with the wrong permissions in the first place.
Sometimes directly fixing an apparent error doesn't always solve the "problem".

12
Ok, so if you accidentally delete a file, what this effectively does is to remove the file name from the file index and mark the space associated with the file as available for use. If you stop using the system at "that" point, i.e. before the space is used up by something else, it's is generally possible to recover the data. However. What you have done is to replace your data, block for block, with new data, so on the face of it, there is nothing to recover as the data itself has been overwritten - at least for the first couple of G of data,

In terms of "how to the FBI do it?", overwriting a block on the disk could be analogous with writing something with pencil, erasing it with a rubber, then writing something new on top. What was there has gone, however with the right tools (maybe with some graphite powder etc) it may be possible to see an imprint of what was there and deduce what had previously been written. Now this relates to magnetic storage, not sure how it applies to solid state media, but either way I think it would likely require specialised (physical) tools, be expensive, and unlikely to produce very much that's usable. As far as I'm aware standard hardware can't recover overwritten blocks from any type of media.

If you think there may be data you want on the device "after" the first couple of G's, i.e. the size of the ubuntu ISO, you will need a tool that will scan your device at block level looking for valid file / directory entries .. the tool you need really depends on the filesystem that "was" on the device before it was overwritten. Were you using extfs, fat, or something else?


13
Hi devjava,

I'm guessing you have an external disk referenced as /dev/mdxi mounted on your filesystem as something like /mnt/mdxi (?!)
("df" should confirm this)
Copying ubuntu.iso to the mount point should have copied the file to the filesystem on the device and left other files on the device in-tact.
Copying ubuntu.iso to the "device file" effectively copies the contents of ubuntu.iso block for block to your usb device. (rather than unpacking it as-such)
As .iso files are "mountable", your device (which now sounds like an image copy of ubuntu.iso) should also be mountable, and a copy of ubuntu.iso, block-for-block.
- as Keith says, I think you may be out of luck ...

14
Linux Support / Re: Linux Live Boot
« on: November 18, 2020, 10:16:09 pm »
> I have 2 questions how do I upgrade to 20 and could I upgrade to Kali from 18.04 ubuntu.

No. my suggestion was to boot / install an "old" version of your distro of choice .. then upgrade to the latest version .. then IF you have a problem, try the command.
I don't know if/when the issue cut in for Kali/Mint, but it would seem Ubuntu 18.04 pre-dates the issue.

I'm not sure precisely what the issue is, however I've seen the word "bug" mentioned a couple of times in the same context ...

15
Linux Support / Re: How do I access my NAS in dolphin
« on: November 18, 2020, 10:11:49 pm »
Hi, I think there are multiple methods depending on how you want to work, but in Dolphin;
  • Open Dolphin, select "Network" from the left hand menu / column
  • Double click on "Add network folder" icon in the main pane
  • Select your access method, FTP/NFS/SSH should work for you if they're enabled on the NAS
With NFS, you may need to mount the drive "before" trying to access it via Dolphin.

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