a) some kind of weird acpi issue .. try adding acpi_osi=Linux as a kernel boot parameter. How do I change the boot parameter?
OK, the following instructions are for a single boot ONLY .. so you'll have to do this EVERY time you boot .. but if it works, we can automate the procedure.
(I'm not automating it now in case it stops your PC from booting, or causes other issues .. any problems and a reboot will clear the setting)
Turn ON your laptop, and as soon
as your BIOS POST screen disappears, press the SHIFT
key and hold it, until you are presented with the GRUB menu
.. SIMILAR to this:
(you won't have long to hit the shift key, and the timing can be a little awkward, so it may even be easier to hit AND HOLD the Shift key DURING the BIOS POST .. ie. immediately after turning on your PC)
Select the 'default' Ubuntu kernel (usually the top one), and rather than pressing enter, press E
You will be presented with a screen SIMILAR to this:
Press DOWN ARROW
until you get to the line that starts with:
and press the END
key to position the cursor at the end of the that line... it *usually* ends with “quiet splash”.
Now you can enter additional kernel boot options... so add the acpi_osi=Linux option instead of nomodeset in the above screenshot .. so it now reads:
quiet splash acpi_osi=Linux
(doesn't matter if it moves down a line, as long as there is a space between splash and nomdeset)
Now hit Ctrl+X
and test doing this for a few boots to see if it makes any difference.
BTW, if this works, it will only work for a single boot and will need re-applying at the next boot .. but if it solves the issue, we'll make it permanent
Disk manager says there are 7 bad sectors on the HD how do I fix them?
Disk Manager ? .. if you mean Disk Utility ..
You can't .. they are damaged .. but depending on what EXACTLY Disk Utility is saying, they may already have been marked as not to be written to any more.
The bad news .. when a HDD starts getting bad sectors the drive is usually going to get worse.
If you can boot a LiveUSB without issue EVERY time .. I'd say the problem is the hard drive.